The essential features of Communication systems are:

    • Message – the data the signal carries.
    • Sender – origin of the signal.
    • Receiver destination of the signal
    • Medium – the method used to a carry the signal from the sender to the receiver.
    • Encoding
    • Decoding
    • Error detection
    • Error correction.


  • A protocol is a formal set of rules and procedures that must be observed for two devices to transfer data efficiently and successfully.
  • Handshaking

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